So-called because here was found the temple dedicated to the Mediterranean moon goddess Noctiluca. At her feet a bicorne altar stands where different ash remains were found belonging to animals sacrificed in her honour.
Rufus Festus Avienus, a poet of the 4th century recounted his experiences researching the coast of the Iberian Peninsula in his "Ora Maritima". With regard to Malaga, his references to the sanctuary of Noctiluca in Malaka Tarressia stand out, and the description coincides with the Cueva del Tesoro. The temple was dedicated to the Mediterranean moon goddess Noctiluca (she who shines in the dark).
The poet appeals to Malagueños because, through his first book, he left testimony of the existence of the temple of Noctiluca.
When the famous sanctuary was re-discovered by Manuel Laza Palacio in 1952, at its base, remnants of charred mammal bones were found, proof that in ancient times ritual sacrifices were carried out here. The remains were analysed by Dr Modesto Laza Palacio, the elder brother of Manuel Laza Palacio. It is described by classical authors, such as Rufus Festus Avienus and others. It is connected to numerous bicorne altars, dedicated to the Great White Goddess of the Mediterranean, who was worshipped from prehistoric times until the time of classical antiquity throughout the Mediterranean basin, as studied by, among others, Robert Graves, Mircea Eliade, Campbell, and prehistorians as a whole. This links the Andalusian coast directly with Crete, and the Spain of the Tartessus period with Phoenicia and Israel: the Book of Solomon, dating to the 10th century BC and included in the Old Testament, mentioned Tarshish ships, i.e. from Tartessus, which carried silver and other precious metals to the Court of the Jewish king, son of David. Phoenician coins from the 6th - 7th century BC have been found imprinted with the figure of the moon goddess, showing her matriarchal nature. Several Greek and Latin classical authors cite three major shrines on the Andalusian coast between Almeria and Cadiz: one at Cabo de Gata, dedicated to Venus Marina; one at Gadir or Cadiz: dedicated to Melkart or Hercules (which are the same mythical being, named either in Phoenician: Melkart, or Latin: Hercules), and between them halfway, the Lunar Sanctuary of Noctiluca, located on the Malaga coast.
It consists of a rock Baetylus, i.e. the rock formation was not carved by the hand of man but formed by nature and then used by man as a place where the goddess manifested, and as a place of worship, a practice still commonly seen in primitive peoples and very common in classical antiquity.